The unknown falls into two groups of objects: those which are outside and can be experienced by the senses, and those which are inside and are experienced im- mediately. There are innumerable cases of people who lingered on in a pettifogging unconscious- ness, only to become neurotic in the end. In the latter case the unconscious produces all too human and purely personal compensations, whose manifest aim is to bring the conscious mind back to ordinary reality. The complexity of apperception, on the other hand, is psychic. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 20 vols. The snake-motif was certainly not an individual acquisi- tion of the dreamer, for snake-dreams are very common even among city-dwellers who have probably never seen a real snake.
Connecting readers with great books since 1972. About this Item: Princeton University Press, 1972. This is, of course, also true for the various neo-Freudian usages of this terminology. There are many psychological situations in which the activity of the collective unconscious can come to the surface. No answer of any kind is permissible, either for or against. Hence it is not sur- prising that its inner effects are not understood, and that those to whom such things happen arc called pathological freaks and treated as crazy. But the danger is that very many people lack 38 1 would like to call attention here to an interesting remark of Kant's.
My point of view is naturally a psychological one, and moreover that of a practising psychologist whose task it is to find the quickest road through the chaotic muddle of complicated psychic states. And what is being spun is a cocoon, which in the end will completely envelop him. According to this definition the self is a quantity that is supraordinate to the conscious ego. She had pitied him, admired him, pampered him so much that he never got along properly at school because he was too girlish. As long as we are still submerged in nature we are un- conscious, and we live in the security of instinct which knows no problems. Or will he reject them? That is why all great religions hold out the promise of a life beyond, of a supramundane goal which makes it possible for mortal man to live the second half of life with as much purpose and aim as the first.
Conversely — and this happens very frequently — one's cherished convictions and principles, especially the moral ones, begin to harden and to grow increasingly rigid until, somewhere around the age of fifty, a period of intolerance and fanaticism is reached. With diminished personality, he turns back to the measure he can fill. We see that in this phase of life — between thirty-five and forty — an important change in the human psyche is in preparation. That does not seem to me very probable, because as a rule death is still far in the distance and therefore somewhat abstract. We are evidently dealing here with that same old serpent who had been the special friend of Eve. As a boy he had often revolved in his mind the idea of how he could take his life, even if every conceivable measure were em- ployed to prevent him.
For most people it is the demands of life which harshly put an end to the dream of childhood. The patient now had a dream in which he was bitten in the heel by a snake and instantly paralyzed. They are the lodestars that guide us in the adventure of broadening and consolidating our physical existence; they help us to strike our roots in the world, but they cannot guide us in the development of that wider consciousness to which we give the name of culture. During the 1940s and '50s, he helped Swami Nikhilananda to translate the Upanishads and The Gospel of Sri Rama- krishna. There are numerous instances of an intel- lectual problem, unsolved in the waking state, being solved in a dream. There is a marked difference between the two in that the neurotic is ill because he is unconscious of his problems, while the person with a difficult temperament suffers from his con- scious problems without being ill.
There are many people who declare that they never dream, but the prob- ability is that they simply do not remember their dreams. We could understand at once why his heart ached, but that J2 : The Structure and Dynamics of the Psyche his heel should ache too is beyond all rational expectation. Emo- tion, incidentally, is not an activity of the individual but something that happens to him. As an aid to study, the index has been comprehensively expanded. The wine of youth does not always clear with advancing years; sometimes it grows turbid.
Its influence is chiefly manifest in the special nature of the contrasting and compensating con- tents of the unconscious. He therefore considered how this entrance might be closed, and thus it was that he hit upon the idea of pressing his tongue backwards. Concepts that are too broad usually prove to be unsuitable instruments because they are too vague and nebulous. That is plainly not the case. So obvious does it seem to us that a man should drown in his own dignity, so utterly incomprehensible that he should seek anything other than what the mob wants, and that he should vanish permanently from view in this other. He said I must look at the sun with eyes half shut, and then I could see the sun's phallus.
She came to herself and to her own real potentialities. The more projec- tions are thrust in between the subject and the environ- ment, the harder it is for the ego to see through its illu- sions. Jung and Freud held in common an understanding of the profound role of the unconscious. Human beings have one faculty which, though it is of the greatest utility for collective purposes, is most perni- cious for individuation, and that is the faculty of imitation. In both cases the collective has the upper hand. In conclusion I would like to come back for a moment to the comparison with the sun. I am reminded, for instance, of a mental case who refused all nourishment and created quite extraordinary difficulties in connection with nasal feeding.