White blood cells in the urine increase in response to urinary tract infections. In the below section, we go over a few ways you can memorize lab values and recall them. Patients are tested for serum sodium levels in cases of dehydration, edema, abnormal blood pressure levels, and changes in motor functions. Hemoglobin Hgb Hemoglobin is the protein component of red blood cells. An alert client will know if a medication is different from those received before. To assist nurses, here are the common laboratory values listed in an organized and easy-to-understand table. Many important laboratory reference values are not listed here, because of the less frequent use of these tests.
If an error occurs, the nurse who give the medication is the one responsible for the error. These casts may signify malignancies and abnormal metabolic processes. Other conditions that may induce hematuria include cigarette smoking, strenuous exercise, kidney problems, and trauma. And the laboratory values for nurses are certainly among them. This test is used to determine the adequacy of renal function but it may also produce a false-positive result as it is dependent on renal blood flow, protein metabolism, catabolism, drugs, and diet.
We strive for accuracy, but cannot be held responsible for the current validity of data as best practices are ever-changing. This table lists reference values for the most common laboratory tests and is intended for interpretation of the results as they are provided in the examinations. In some circumstances, too acidic or basic urine produces crystals. If the prescribed route is not the recommended route the nurse should double check with the prescriber. Magnesium Magnesium is important in muscle and nerve functions, blood pressure regulation, and immune system. We break down the most common and most important medication classes into easy-to-understand sections. .
Since we started in 2010, Nurseslabs has been visited over 100 million times as of 2018 and has become one of the most trusted nursing websites helping thousands of aspiring nurses achieve their goals. Ketones also form when insulin levels are not enough to initiate carbohydrate metabolism so the body just uses fat in order to produce the energy needed for daily activities. In general, there are five types of white blood cells— neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils. } The only problem I could see is that a number of results here are individualized by testing method and what might be the norm at my hospital in Alberta could be wrong in Quebec. Worksheet will open in a new window. The Best Lab Values Study Resource Without a doubt, my favorite resources and reference guide for lab values is the. The five phases of the nursing processes are not singular entities.
An elevated number of epithelial cells can also signify an improper collection of the urine specimen, especially if it is not collected using the midstream-catch technique. On the other hand, low hemoglobin levels may be present in a variety of blood diseases, like sickle cell disease and thalassemia. We even talk about medications that are commonly given during pregnancy. Microscopic Examination In microscopic examination, the urine sample is centrifuged so sediments will settle at the bottom and the clear part can be discarded. Drugs that may increase hemoglobin: Erythropoietin, iron supplements.
Early signs: finger numbness, tingling, burning of extremities and paresthias. The Nursing Process The nursing process is a systematic, rational method of planning and providing individualized nursing care. This makes some of these hard to memorize values more accessible! Nurses are often tasked of patient preparation and specimen collection during these diagnostic procedures. It also plays a role in blood sugar regulation. Sensitive to hepatic inflammation and necrosis.
Select which values you need to know. Examples of casts that are not typically present in the urine include leucine, cystine, and tyrosine. Therefore, consumption of acidic or basic foods, as well as the occurrence of any condition in the body that produces acids or bases, will directly affect the pH of the urine. Visual Examination In a visual examination, a urine sample is inspected for color, cloudiness, and odor. However, in cases of severe urinary tract infection, inflammation and malignancies, there will be an increased number of epithelial cells in the urine. See, I am studying for the board of Quebec.
Conditions that usually produce high amounts of protein in the urine include preeclampsia, multiple myeloma, inflammation, urinary tract injuries, malignancies and other disorders that destroy red blood cells. Learn the normal ranges for each lab value and everything else will take care of itself. This strip has partitions impregnated by different chemicals that correspond to certain substances present in the urine, so abnormalities will be detected. Few drops of this centrifuged urine will be examined under a microscope. With lab values, you need to know what you don't know Click to Tweet Now you know what values to learn first, how do you go about doing it? Other types of protein compounds are not detectable in dipstick test and can be measured through a different urine protein test.
We even walk you through how to conquer the often intimidating med math and drug calculations! Examples include fatty casts, granular cast, and waxy casts among others. Every aspect is broken down into manageable chunks to eliminate confusion and overwhelm. If more than 1 or 2 species seen, contaminated specimen is likely. Pyramid Points focus on knowledge of the normal values for the most common laboratory tests, therapeutic serum medication levels of commonly prescribed medications, and determination of the need to implement specific actions based on the findings. Creatinine Creatinine is the product of muscle metabolism. Reader Interactions All links on this site may be affiliate links and should be considered as such.