It also underlined the extreme nature of transgression performed by the applicant, which was to be considered when striking the balance between the interest of the public and the interest of the applicant. This holds true when the right to a pension is based on contributions which have been made as well as in cases in which employers have given a more general undertaking to pay a pension on certain conditions ; the case was later on referred to the Grand Chamber, which declared the application. The applicant requested information about the balance in her account. Several of the offences had been committed while the applicant had been on duty and in part they had been carried out taking advantage of knowledge the applicant had acquired in the course of his duties as police officer. Article 1 of Protocol 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights does not entail a right to receive a pension or other benefits, nor does it enshrine that a pension has to reach a certain amount. The authors who developed a draft of the Convention on behalf of the Consultative Assembly now: Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe considered that the right to property counted among those rights, because of its importance for personal liberty But after the draft had been submitted to the Committee of Ministers, the Committee created its own group of experts. It reiterated that the state was not under an obligation to protect its citizens against the effects of inflation.
After the fall of the communist regime, legislation was introduced to rehabilitate victims of the communist regimes and to rectify judicial decisions which had affected them. In 1991, Yugoslav banks had been ordered not to permit any withdrawals of foreign currency for a certain period. While the dispute over the payable amount continued, a Belgium court handed down a judgment interpreting the relevant laws in a fashion that revenue offices had no possibility to interrupt the statute of limitation. Article 1 of Protocol 1 to the European Convention on Human Rights does not entail a right to receive a pension or other benefits, nor does it enshrine that a pension has to reach a certain amount. The applicant had been responsible for the payment of pensions at an insurance fund for members of liberal professions.
An expectation is legitimate if it is based on either a legislative provision or a legal act bearing on the property interest in question. It pointed out that the applicant had maintained possession of the house in good faith and that the authorities had tolerated his treating the dwelling as his own for almost ten years para 110 ff of the judgment. The regulation governing these housing saving accounts foresaw inter alia that holders of such accounts were to be compensated for the loss in purchasing power in years in which the prices of houses and apartments increased at a higher rate than the interest rate. In Zolotas v Greece, the Court scrutinized the statute of limitation on claims to funds deposited in an account. Whether there is a possibility of interconnection of the principles established — a question which requires a separate and deeper analysis. It had been confiscated in Czechoslovakia in 1946 on the basis of the so called Benes decrees which made provision for the attachment of items belonging to Germans. A crucial consideration of the judgments in Oneryildiz v Turkey and Saghanidze v Georgia is that the applicant was led to believe that he would be able to continue living in the house.
They challenged this decision before French courts, but it was ultimately confirmed. They stated that there was a danger of methane gas causing explosions. The Court also pointed out that the applicant was still able to access the funds in her account and had thus not been deprived of property. His requests were refused by the competent German courts. Before their departure they deposited 950000 Mozambiquen escudos in the consulate of Portugal in Maputo, the capital of Mozambique. It would not be consonant either with economic reality or with the intention of the parties to consider each of these acts in complete isolation from the others. Not only was there insufficient public interest to justify the retrospective legislation but the government had been aware of the concerns about the legality of the statute because it had been brought to the attention of its proposer by the report of the Constitution Committee.
The Court pointed out that member states have a wide margin of appreciation when determining if and to what extent they compensated citizens for losses they had suffered due to communist policies. Accordingly, the Convention should enshrine fundamental democratic rights. In 1991, Yugoslav banks had been ordered not to permit any withdrawals of foreign currency for a certain period. The majority objected to the fact that the domestic courts had simply found that the confiscation order against Mr Paulet had been in the public interest, without balancing that conclusion against his right to peaceful enjoyment of his possessions as required under the European Convention. In the view of the Court, stripping him off his pension entitlements therefore imposed a disproportionate burden on the applicant. It also attaches importance to the questions whether the forfeiture of pension entitlements was decided upon in a procedure, in which the affected person was heard or whether the loss of entitlements was an automatic consequence of a criminal conviction. The Court pointed out that the applicant had already served a prison sentence of 18 months and that the decision to deprive him of his pension entitlements left him and his family bereft of any financial means.
To set the context, the book first gives a brief but comprehensive analysis of property rights from Ancient Greek times until now. When he inquired about the balance in the account some 22 year later, the bank informed him that all his claims with regard to the account were barred due to a statute of limitation established by the Greek civil code. When she learned that this sum was the equivalent of the price of 4 square meters of living space, she asked to be awarded compensation since it was her understanding that the balance should be sufficient to buy 70 square meters of living space. The reduction or discontinuation of pension entitlements may constitute an interference with the right to peaceful enjoyment of possessions , para 57. It could not claim those subsidies any more, so it claimed and got damages from the regulator. He had embezzled significant amounts of money and been convicted to a prison sentence. It stated that expectations only enjoyed the protection of article 1 of Protocol 1 on the condition that they had a sufficient legal basis.
Following the outbreak of the civil war in Mozambique, they had been forced to leave the country. The obligation of the state to protect property rights does not, however, entail an obligation to ensure the purchasing power of the funds deposited in an account Rudzinska v Poland; Gayduk v Ukraine. He had been convicted for the misappropriation of public funds and served 18 months of imprisonment. It pointed out that the applicant had had the possibility to withdraw funds for certain purposes, that restrictions on withdrawing foreign currency had already been in place in Yugoslavia and that the applicant had accrued interest on his balance. About ten years after his appointment the applicant had a fall-out with the newly appointed Minister of Internal Affairs.
As a reaction to this, talks about enshrining the protection of property resumed. Thus, the Tribunal stated that the investor was entitled to rely on the representations of federal officials and to believe that it was entitled to continue its construction while following the advice of these officials, and filing the municipal permit application the investor was merely acting prudently and in the full expectation that the permit would be granted. Since the state had failed to establish such an obligation, the Court found a violation of the right to property. The applicant was a Belgium company which had been asked by the revenue office to pay a certain amount of taxes. The relevant authorities and courts declined his request on the grounds that the law provided that only members of the bar who reached the retirement age were entitled to a pension. In 1991, the Czech museum in which the painting had been place in the meantime, loaned it to a museum in Cologne, Germany.