The new book by the well-known editor team Narendra Tuteja and Sarvajeet Gill provides a comprehensive overview on the molecular basis of plant responses to external stress like drought or heavy metals, to aid in the engineering of stress resistant crops. This chapter deals with the harmful effects of chemical fertilizers to the environment as well as the scope and benefits of biopesticides and biofertilizers to attain food security for the growing population through enhanced quality and restoration of soil fertility for sustainable development. This study was conducted on five ecotypes of Satureja rechingeri in in vitro and in vivo experiments. From a climate change vulnerability perspective, Bangladesh is among the most vulnerable countries in the world, with adverse effects being apparent for many different sectors of the economy, including forestry. Vermicomposting and a possible mechanism of action of various biofertilizers have also been described. Rice is one of the most important species in the family of Poaceae.
The availability of land for agricultural purposes is also on a decline because increase in population also demands additional infrastructure in terms of housing, land and industrial development. Fertilizers play an important role in enhancing crop productivity. Various candidate genes have been identified and transformed in model plants as well as agriculturally important crop plants to develop abiotic stress-tolerant plants for crop improvement. Current studies reveal variations in the expression of defense mechanisms in tolerant and sensitive species, which have provided some target genes for engineering into cold-sensitive species. These plants are well suited to grow in hot arid environments and have special growth characteristics such as low water consumption under high salinity and adverse soil conditions and require less amount of soil nitrogen for their farming. These marks allow for greater genome plasticity which results in better adaptation of plants to changing environmental conditions. From India he has cloned the first plant helicase Plant J.
A double-strand break repair model has been proposed in many textbooks on the basis of her discovery of Ku as a helicase, and, collaborating with Narendra Tuteja, she contributed significantly to crop improvement under stress conditions. The mechanisms underlying endurance and adaptation to environmental stress factors in plants have long been the focus of intense research. The last part covers translational plant physiology, describing several examples of the development of more stress-resistant crop varieties. Singh, Vikram Raval, Megha K. Purohit 5 Adverse Effects of Abiotic Stresses on Medicinal and Aromatic Plants and their Alleviation by Calcium M. The majority of reported studies on drought stress indicate the increased amounts of secondary metabolites such as phenols, terpenes and nitrogenous compounds and also alkaloids, cyanogenic glucosides or glucosinolates Tuteja and Singh Gil 2013.
Comprehensive and lavishly illustrated, Plant Acclimation to Environmental Stress is a state-of-the-art guide suited for scholars and researchers working in the field of crop improvement, genetic engineering and abiotic stress tolerance. Written by experts around the globe, this volume adds new dimensions in the field of plant acclimation to abiotic stress factors. He has already developed the salinity tolerant tobacco and rice plants without affecting yield. Understanding the molecular basis of plant responses to the major abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity is very important for the biotechnological application of stress adaptation for crop improvement. Written by experts around the globe, this volume adds new dimensions in the field of plant acclimation to abiotic stress factors.
Salinity is one of the major problems limiting the crop productivity worldwide. Weeds are harder plants, coexisting with crops and out-compete them in almost every aspect. Recently, very high salinity stress tolerant genes from fungus Piriformospora indica have been isolated and their functional validation in fungus and plants is in progress. Several genes responsible for abiotic stress tolerance have been identified which code for antioxidants, enzymes that modify lipids in the cell membrane, stress-response transcription factors, proteins that maintain ion homeostasis, heat shock proteins, or enzymes that synthesize important stress-response compounds. Salt, drought and heavy metals exert their negative impact essentially by disrupting the ionic and osmotic equilibrium of the cell, whereas, cold causes mechanical constraint to the membrane. Some of them have been proposed as suitable targets for genetic engineering in order to impart stress tolerance in plants. Anthropogenic perturbations are one of the most important factors influence plant diversity patterns.
Abiotic stresses as a whole are regarded as the crucial factors restricting the plant species to reach their full genetic potential to deliver desired productivity. The obtained results signalize the accumulation of some quantities highly arisen by free radicals of oxygen at investigated species, the enzymatic activity being significantly higher in the mining plant comparatively to the control areal. Environment and Pollution , 1 October 2013. Anjum, Ritu Gill, and Narendra Tuteja 1. Chhabra, Rachana Jain, Vinay Sharma, and Shashi Kumar -- 4. Increasing the agar concentration up to 66% had no effects on rooting and the growth rates of shoots but more increase led to a sharp reduction in the growth rate and root differentiation.
Ranganatha 13 Sustainable Agriculture Practices for Food and Nutritional Security Vibha Dhawan 14 Arbuscular Mycorrhiza: Approaches for Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Crop Plants for Sustainable Agriculture Rupam Kapoor, Heikham Evelin, Piyush Mathur, Bhoopander Giri 15 Biofertilizers: A Sustainable Eco-friendly Agricultural Approach to Crop Improvement Ranjan Kumar Sahoo, Deepak Bhardwaj, Narendra Tuteja 16 Plant Pathogen Interactions: Crop Improvement under Adverse Conditions Kamal Kumar, Praveen Kumar Verma 17 Can G-proteins be the key proteins for overcoming environmental stresses and increasing crop yield in plants? Soil salinity has a remarkable negative impact on economy, particularly in the case of fundamentally agrarian nation. These stresses can also reduce organ size leaf, tiller, and spikes and growth period for various development stages tillering, jointing, booting, heading, anthesis, and grain filling Hossain et al. Genetic engineering for stress tolerant and nutritionally good crops is a promising area which permits the fast improvement of economically important crops. Ten morphological and physiological characters were recorded from both experiments. Further, tapping the advancement of genetic engineering technology, the potential of these crops can be enhanced for their better adaptability to arid zone, in addition to improving the economy of rural areas of the Great Indian Desert not only for biofuel production but as an alternative feed for animals and industrial products that are discussed in this chapter. Bangladesh forests are being considered as an important stock of tree biomass and hence organic carbon, although storage quantity varies from one forest type to another. Exploring suitable crop improvements or ways to alleviate stress is one of the tasks of plant biologists.
Ecologists study plant biodiversity and the environmental factors affecting plant distribution. Kang Genetic Engineering for Acid Soil Tolerance in Plants Sagarika Mishra, Lingaraj Sahoo and, Sanjib Kumar Panda Evaluation of Tropospheric O3 Effects on Global Agriculture: A New Insight Richa Rai, Abhijit Sarkar, S. Plants overcome environmental stresses by development of tolerance, resistance or avoidance mechanisms, adjusting to a gradual change in its environment which allows them to maintain performance across a range of adverse environmental conditions. Andugula, and Manoj Majee -- 10. In addition, stress avoidance strategies include exclusion of toxic ions, restriction of entry of toxic ions and immobilization of heavy metals in soil or plant roots.
Singh, Vikram Raval, and Megha K. The threat of climate change is expected to have negative impact on agriculture especially in the developing part of the world as in the tropical region which is more densely populated. The review will discuss the status of effects of cold stress on plant metabolism, perception and transduction of cold stress, genes expressed, defense mechanisms, and target genes for genetic engineering. Thus, engineering plants for tolerance towards such environmental menaces is the prime concern for crop improvement programs. Crop plants are exposed to many adverse conditions like biotic and abiotic stresses which affect their yield. His results are an important success and indicate the potential for improving crop production at sub-optimal conditions. Plants respond to abiotic stresses through multifaceted molecular signaling pathways.
The membranes have a vital role in thermal sensing leading to the activation of mechano-sensitive Ca2+-influx channels. Sharma Grain Legumes: Biotechnological Interventions in Crop Improvement for Adverse Environments Pooja Bhatnagar-Mathur, Paramita Palit, Ch Sridhar Kumar, D. This system works in the similar fashion as the sensor-effector proteins acting right from perception of signal till the sensitizing effectors and bringing about ultimate change for the benefit of the organisms. In our study, since plant biomass was reduced as a result of water stress, it could be concluded that increased oil yield might be possible if plant density per unit land area increased. Sharma Pulse Crops: Biotechnological Strategies to Enhance Abiotic Stress Tolerance S. Salinity is one of the major causes of decrease in agricultural productivity worldwide. In the in vivo experiment, effect of water stress was studied in a greenhouse with irrigation withhold and sampling at five stages.