Izdavačko i knjižarsko preduzeće Geca Kon A. There are certain things salutary to bear in mindwhen we think or speak of any part of that country to-day. They were presumably in Dacia, north of the Danube, in the previouscentury, but they are first mentioned as having crossed that river during the reign of the Emperor Justin I 518-27. The initial Serbian military plan was to defend and attack with the main army under Chernyayev. There was a garrison at the border fortress of commanded by with 8,000 men.
It willbe seen that this division had consequences which have lasted to the present day. It has always been the ambition of each of these three nationalities to dominate the whole, an ambition which has caused endless waste of blood and money and untold misery. The departure of the Huns and the Goths had made the way for fresh series of unwelcome visitors. In the fifth century the Huns moved from the shores of the Black Sea to the plains of the Danube and theTheiss; they devastated the Balkan peninsula, in spite of the tribute which they had levied on Constantinoplein return for their promise of peace. Of Rumaniawhat are we to think? Thepeninsula seems to have been colonized by Slavs, who penetrated right down into Greece; but the Avars werethroughout this time, both in politics and in war, the directing and dominating force. The Goths invaded the peninsula, and in 251 the Emperor Decius was killed in battle against them near Odessus on the Black Sea the modern Varna.
Other armies would simultaneously launch diversionary attacks, but these were repulsed in the west. In this the Bulgars were completely successful under the leadership of one Krum, whom,in the elation of victory, they promptly elected to the throne. Following a bloodless coup, Eastern Rumelia was unified with Bulgaria in 1885. Rebellions in the Balkans against the Ottomans had happened before, such as the Banat Uprising by Serbians in 1594 and the Orlov Revolt in Greece in 1770, but none were successful until the 19 th century. The biggest number of Russian volunteers fought in the Timok-Morava Army, their number reaching around 2,200, out of which there were 650 officers and 300 medical personnel. They are all fine peoples who have not obtained their proper places in the sun.
The emperors and their generals did what they could by means of defensive works on the frontiers, of punitive expeditions, and of trying to set the various hordes of barbarians at loggerheads with each other, but, as they had at the same time to defend an empire which stretched from Armenia to Spain, it is not surprising that they were not more successful. Heritage and Expansion of the ByzantineEmpire 4. But even when the janissary threat had been mostly nullified, the Serbs continued the fight against the Ottoman Empire, receiving assistance from Russia. Political considerations, however, have until now always been against this solution of the difficulty, and, even if it solved in this sense, there would still remain the problem of the Greek nationality, whose distribution along all the coasts of the Aegean, both European and Asiatic, makes a delimitation of the Greek state on purely ethnical lines virtually impossible. The territory to the north of the Danube having been lost, what is now western Bulgaria was renamed Dacia, while Moesia, the modern kingdom of Serbia, was made very much smaller.
At the beginning of the conflict, Serbian army was poorly trained and ill-equipped, unlike the troops of the Ottoman Empire. If the question were to be settled purely on ethnical considerations, Bulgaria wouldThe Balkans - A History Of Bulgaria Serbia Greece Rumania Turkey 3acquire the greater part of the interior of Macedonia, the most numerous of the dozen nationalities of which isBulgarian in sentiment if not in origin, and would thus undoubtedly attain the hegemony of the peninsula,while the centre of gravity of the Serbian nation would, as is ethnically just, move north-westwards. There were very few cavalry squadrons reflecting the nature of the terrain and those which existed were poorly equipped. The main rifle was the M. . We hope we have dealt fairly with all these peoples. The Avars were a nomad tribe, and the horse was their natural means oflocomotion.
Latin influence, shipping, colonization, and art were always supreme on the eastern shores of the Adriatic, just as were those of Greece on the shores of the Black Sea. If we have not been able to write about the Near East under existing circumstances altogether sine ira et studio , we have tried to remember that each of its peoples has a case. The coasts of the Aegean and the great cities on or near them were too strongly held by the Greeks to be affected, and those Slavs who penetrated into Greece itself were soon absorbed by the local populations. Philip of Macedoniasubdued Thrace in the fourth century B. The campaign was led by the leader of the Filiki Eteria, Alexander Ypsilantis, who had connections to Russia.
In the Treaty of Berlin 1878 , Romania was given its independence, although it lost some territories to Russia. During another Persianwar, which broke out in 622 and entailed the prolonged absence of the emperor from Constantinople, theAvars, not satisfied with the tribute extorted from the Greeks, made an alliance against them with the Persians,and in 626 collected a large army of Slavs and Asiatics and attacked Constantinople both by land and sea fromthe European side, while the Persians threatened it from Asia. But Great Britain and Austria-Hungary feared an increased Russian power in the region, so the Treaty of San Stefano was revised at the Congress of Berlin, and the Treaty of Berlin 1878 changed the situation. The power of the Bulgars grew as that of the Avars declined, but at the death of Kubrat, in 638, his realm wasdivided amongst his sons. That on Turkey, compiled between one mission abroad and another, was the latest to be finished. Mediaeval history, whether of the East or the West, ismostly a record of bloodshedding and cruelty; and the Middle Age has been prolonged to our own time inmost parts of the Balkans, and is not yet over in some parts.
The war against the Marcomanni under the Emperor Marcus Aurelius, in the second half of this century, was the turning-point. It is the tendency of Bulgarianhistorians, who scornfully point to the fact that the history of Russia only dates from the ninth century, toexaggerate the antiquity of their own and to claim as early a date as possible for the authentic appearance oftheir ancestors on the kaleidoscopic stage of the Balkan theatre. Prince succeededprince, war followed war, at the will of the feudal nobles. It is curious that the Slavs, though masters of the interior of the peninsula and of parts of its eastern and western coasts, have never made the shores of the Aegean the White Sea, as they call it or the cities on them their own. It ended in Serbian victory. That any one of them is arrayed against us today is not to be laid entirely or chiefly at its own door.
Place-names are a good index of the extent and strength of the tide of Slav immigration. The Bulgars, like the Huns and the Avars who preceded them, and like the Magyars and the Turks whofollowed them, were a tribe from eastern Asia, of the stock known as Mongol or Tartar. During the autumn of 1876, the Ottoman Empire continued their successful offensive which culminated in a victory on the heights above Đunis. They are also unwilling to admit that theywere anticipated by the Slavs; they prefer to think that the Slavs only insinuated themselves there thanks tothe energy of the Bulgars' offensive against the Greeks, and that as soon as the Bulgars had leisure to lookabout them they found all the best places already occupied by the anarchic Slavs. Origin of the Osmanlis 2. In Russia their downfall became proverbial, being crystallized in the saying, 'they perished like Avars'. That on Turkey, compiled between one mission abroad andanother, was the latest to be finished.