Blue-green algae constitute a plant division by themselves, but they structurally resemble many of the bacteria. Some authors use the term bog for any peatland, whether it consists of sphagnum or sedge peats; but in this book the term always refers to nutrient-poor acid environments. Other names: Tag alder, hoary alder, hazel alder, black alder the latter usually designating A. Identification of Bog Rosemary : The narrow, blue-green leaves of the Bog Rosemary are curled inward. Shrub or small tree in wet thickets. In most wetland herbs, sexual or seed reproduction is often a low second to vegetative reproduction that is, by fragmentation or cloning from rhizomes as a means of survival. North Woods Wildflowers Falcon Publishing, 2001 , p.
Among wildflowers typical of rich fen habitats, the wild calla is a frequent alder associate. The fruit is a dry, rounded capsule, appearing in July. Among the most frequent songbird seed feeders in alder thickets are blackcapped chickadees, hoary and common redpolls, pine siskins, and American goldfinches. The white Leatherleaf bells appear on axils of the current year's leaves, forming a one-side raceme, while the pinkish Bog Rosemary flowers appear in clusters at the end of the branch. This is warty jelly fungus, also called black alder jelly Exidia glandulosa , a club fungus. Estimates indicate that peatlands bogs and fens cover as much as 5 percent of the land surface, primarily in northern temperate and arctic regions. Dublin: The Environmental Institute, University College, 1996.
Where it grows the water often appears red or purplish. The conelike female catkin produces tiny winged nuts, then turns woody, often remaining on the plant into the following year. Fen: In contrast to bogs, a mineral-rich wetland alkaline bog usually dominated by sedges and calcium-loving herbs and shrubs, characterized by the accumulation of peat. Alder stems are frequent rubbing posts for white-tailed bucks; scarred and shredded stems indicate where deer have rubbed the velvet from their new antlers. Because bog peat is approximately 95 percent water, it must be dried before use. These are the alder blight aphid Prociphilus tessellatus , which feeds on red maple leaves earlier in summer; the harvester or wanderer butterfly Feniseca tarquinius ; and various ant species. Surface mats of blue-green algae often have a fishy or pigpen odor caused, at least in part, by rapid decomposition; exposed to surface sunlight,.
The Cornell Lab of Ornithology. Wetlands, if you would know them, require a bit more effort to explore than forests and meadows. These are usually produced by the alder stem borer Saperda obliqua , a long-horned beetle, and Eupristocerus cogitans, a buprestid beetle. The roots themselves, which may graft with those of other alder clones, form a mesh of shallow mats, anchoring the soil and preventing streambank erosion. Each organism depends upon and provides support to others, which in some cases may be absolutely vital to its own existence. Although alder is not a preferred food of beavers, these animals often cut the shrubs for their winter food stores when aspen trees are in short supply.
Shrub associates include willows, dogwoods, and buttonbush. They are the most primitive plants on earth because these cells have no well-defined nuclei their nuclear material is scattered throughout the cell and no sexual reproduction. An aquatic is an herb that grows wholly or partially submersed in the water. Cells are often coated with a slippery, gelatinous sheath. I am grateful for her collaboration.
Swarm sites often remain constant, and times of day for swarming also tend to be consistent for a given midge species. It grows in bogs in the Adirondack Mountains of upstate New York. Most American wetlands have existed as such since the retreat of Pleistocene glaciers. Like legumes, alders are soil enrichers, hosting nitrogen-fixing bacteria in root nodules. The leaves are alternate; that is, the leaves merge from the stem one at a time. A Database of Foods, Drugs, Dyes and Fibers of Native American Peoples, Derived from Plants.
Watch too at dusk for dancing swarms of male silverspotted ghost moths Sthenopis argenteomaculatus ; female moths enter the swarms to mate. Biodiversity means having potential genetic options in the bank— for the benefit of ourselves no less than for other organisms. Atmospheric pollution has given us acid rain, which has completely changed the chemical identities of many lakes in certain areas unfortunate enough to be found downwind of the sources. It has been reported in all of the counties in the Adirondack Park Blue Line, with the exception of Saratoga County. Northern white cedar is a frequent associate in swamp thickets.
New York Natural Heritage Program. Densely clustered perforations in the leaves signal its presence. Alder seems to dread the winter less than other plants, wrote Thoreau. Alder leaves are also rich in nitrogen. Adirondack Upland Flora: An Ecological Perspective Saranac, New York: The Chauncy Press, 1992 , pp.
Large mats of blue-green algae species become especially prevalent during late summer and fall in eutrophic oxygen-poor lakes and ponds. Pimplelike pocket galls on the leaves generally indicate Eriophyes mites at work. The leaf-rolling weevil Attelabus rhois makes a thimble-shaped roll containing an egg or larva. I owe special thanks to editor Sally Atwater of Stackpole Books for immense patience and help; to William J. In addition to the aforementioned seed feeders in alder thickets—plus budfeeding grouse and bark-gnawing cottontail rabbits and snowshoe hares— vacated nests of spring and summer birds are most easily seen now. With those dangling clusters of red catkins which it switches in the face of winter, it brags for all vegetation. Arches Polia, Lacanobia are another group of noctuid moth caterpillars that feed on alder.