The material is well-documented, useful for improving teacher quality, and a good guidebook for providing insights to reducing bias and prejudice in all aspects of academia. Specifically, the article discusses three topics emerging in current value-added research that are of special interest to educators: 1 The Complex Statistical Machinery whether value-added models are overly complex and difficult to understand , 2 Test Scores and Vertical Scales value-added modeling must be vertically scaled to work, though it can introduce errors , and 3 Identifying Teacher Effects teacher quality. The data have been clear for decades: poor children and children of color are consistently shortchanged when it comes to mathematics. For example, a third of all secondary school teachers of mathematics have neither a major nor a minor in mathematics. This article shares the story of a group of women educators who created a novel school culture, and the female students who meet them there, to disrupt and transform the dailiness of sexism, racism, and classism.
Specifically this body of research suggests that an effective Ed. Under a deficit-thinking view, students fall into an equity trap McKenzie, 2001; Skrla et al. Providing these stakeholders a forum in which they can speak about accountability testing allows others to hear their voices in this controversial issue. Because data and data use are socially, culturally, and political co-constructed and, like all practices, educa- tors make sense of data filtered through their preexisting beliefs and experi- ences, data use must be conceptualized within broader leadership theories and practices that place equity and learning at the center Knapp et al. Achievement-gap closure strategies include emphasizing reading skills, teaching higher order thinking skills, routinely reviewing material, making at-risk students participate in class, requiring students to speak and write in complete sentences, involving students emotionally, and demonstrating caring and patience.
They can also support princi- pals in broadening the range of data that they draw on. Thus, such a collective project will help all stakeholders understand how historical inequities have shaped contemporary school-community conditions so they can begin to think about proposing culturally, politically, and economically centered strategies. The Equity Audit Process for Schools and Districts4. Deconstructing the hegemonic concepts of normalcy Davis, 2006 and a continuum of disability and services Taylor, 2001 unsettles the leadership candidates' acceptance of such data. The purpose of this study is to examine the out-of-school challenges that instigated a neighborhood-driven community school implementation in a racially diverse and low- to working-class community in the urban Midwest.
Culturally relevant school leaders help establish and nurture school cultures that support the academic and social success of all students. The equity audit in school reform: Three case studies of educational disparity and incongruity. Educational Researcher, 20 2 , 20-24. Employing a sociocultural perspective that acknowledges the many resources that are available to children outside of the school, the author describes how research about children's communities can be used to enhance instruction. The study illustrates that an epistemology of inclusivity can at once embolden and delimit the social justice practices.
Purpose: The purpose of this article is to examine the data conversation moves enacted by leaders and to bridge organizational leadership for equity and data-informed decision making to practice. Each case highlights a dedicated principal committed to their school and community, and documents the significant progress made in addressing particular social justice issues, but also how they confronted justice dilemmas that they believed required them to. The evolution of deficit thinking. Purpose: This article considers the perspectives of superintendents who attended all-Black segregated schools and examines how their lived experiences informed their views on desegregation policy, programs, and practices. I briefly describe this dilemma and analyze three unstated assumptions about difference that permeate disproportionality discussions. Drawing from transformative leadership and Latin critical race theory, this framework situates the role of equity-oriented leadership in the context of fostering language and literacy development for emergent bilingual students. Analysis was an iterative process, beginning with holistic case studies, open coding, and then a focused coding that lead to a finalized typology of data conversation moves.
We elaborate 4 elements of critical consciousness: interrogating power, critical listening, historicizing schools, and embracing discomfort. Journal of Special Education, 32 1 , 32-36. In part three, the authors reflect on the value of the equity audit. Measures of principal caring and student academic support were developed and related to the conceptual framework and student achievement using regression and path analyses. The focus is on high-stakes testing and African American learners' development of racial identity, self-concept, and achievement orientation. The crucial question, however, and the source of great misunderstanding is why so many teachers are teaching subjects for which they have little background.
Phi Delta Kappan, 82 4 , 293-299. They then can lead their faculties in discourse centered on the enrollment patterns and begin to identify factors that may contribute to any inequities found. While most research on urban school reform focuses on improving in-school factors, this study shifts the research lens to out-of-school factors that shape low-income, urban school-community contexts. Purpose and Proposed Model: In this article, we put forth a new set of standards with equity at the core. Finally, recommendations are identified for school reform that focus on accountability while promoting cultural responsiveness to African American learners. The chapter on developing teacher skills is the best and most useful account I've encountered in recent memory, and the entire premise of the book has the potential to raise the level of discourse on issues of equity in our schools, as well as what we can do to make schools better.
Though shown on transcripts as two separate summer courses, in prac- tice, Foundations of Educational Administration is delivered as a single, cohesive learning experience, cotaught by a regular faculty member and a clinical faculty member. Using data to improve teaching and learning has become widely ac- cepted as a foundation for instructional improvement, yet the literature provides few specifics regarding the behaviors and practices of leadership in using data to drive equity-based change for exceptions, see R. Urban principals lead complex schools. Cumulative and residual effects of teachers on future student academic achievement. Just as equity audits have provided a means for creating conversation among educational leaders and scholars, they offer a bridge that might facilitate more effective communication across political lines with policy-makers, government officials, and other key stakeholders.
Grounded solidly in theory, this book demonstrates how audits can help not only in developing fair programs that provide all students with the opportunity to reach their potential but also for hiring, training, and retaining good teachers. The color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender disproportionality in school punishment. First, the researchers examine the daily responsibilities of a novice school principal. Jim Scheurich are the authors of the bestselling Corwin 2009 book, Using Equity Audits to Create Equitable and Excellent Schools. In this article, we position community schools as a place-based reform strategy that pushes back on top-down accountability systems. Caring leadership has an indirect relationship to student achievement through student academic support. Research Method: This qualitative study used one-on-one semistructured interviews with the principals focusing on how they disaggregate data in practice.