A similar, but more likely, explanation is that plants in more populated regions are smaller capacity than is presently needed, on the basis that larger plants will face stronger opposition. The value added of this chapter is multiple. Separation of Organic Waste and Composting: European Policies and Local Choices Massimiliano Volpi. Vincent eds Handbook of Environmental Economics, Vol. The correlation between municipal waste per capita and household consumption per capita is 0.
The descending part of the bell shaped Kuznets curve instead provides evidence of absolute delinking. Porter eds Handbook of Industrial Organization, Vol. Only joint analysis of the I and T dynamics will provide a sound basis for suggestions related to environmental performances. Then and this is a core point in our study environmental and waste policies, especially in the initial phase, are characterized by endogeneity with regard to other features. She holds a PhD in political economics from the University of Siena, Italy. Here Italy shows some leadership that could usefully be extended to other countries. In the second stage, above a certain level of income, the environmental pressure will decrease, as the economy is better able to invest in less polluting technology, consumers reallocate expenditure in favour of greener products, there are more awareness-raising campaigns, etc.
More densely populated urban areas produce relatively more waste. The latter is a positive, but decreasing in size, income environment relationship the ascending path a positive, lower than unity elasticity in economic terms. Introduction Massimiliano Mazzanti and Anna Montini Part 1: Waste Generation, Waste Management and Waste Disposal: Macroeconomic Analyses on Delinking and Policy Effectiveness 1. This hypothesis does not stems from a theoretical model, but arises from conceptual intuition, although some recent contributions show the extent to which the environmental Kuznets hypothesis may be included in formalized economic models. Reducing Uncertainty in the Monetary Assessment of Environmental Liabilities from Waste Landfilling Tiziana Cianflone and Kris Wernstedt 8. The proportions of paper and cardboard and glass recycled The relationship between recycling and economic growth can provide further useful insights into the dynamics of waste. Although some recent works Bringezu et al.
Some structural factors like population density and urbanisation present themselves as relevant drivers of both waste management and landfill diversion. The E-mail message field is required. Waste and Environmental Policy Introduction Massimiliano Mazzanti and Anna Montini Part 1: Waste Generation, Waste Management and Waste Disposal: Macroeconomic Analyses on Delinking and Policy Effectiveness 1. However, plastic poses major recycling and incineration problems, while heavier ferrous materials can be easily recovered and recycled. The issue is thus unresolved.
Shogren 3 The Economics of Climate Change Edited by Anthony D. Even a few words exchanged with him were always full of valuable hints and support for young researchers. It would be impossible to identify all individually, but we would especially thank Frits Møller Andersen, Mette Skovgaard and Roberto Zoboli for their very helpful suggestions on many parts and aspects of the analyses. Table of Contents Introduction Massimiliano Mazzanti and Anna Montini Part 1: Waste Generation, Waste Management and Waste Disposal: Macroeconomic Analyses on Delinking and Policy Effectiveness 1. These models provide further evidence of the importance of population density as opposed to urbanization on paper and cardboard recycling rates.
The variable costs portion is associated with the expected amount of waste produced, which is calculated on the basis of past trends and location-related features. Only a few of the 103 Italian provinces either exceed or come close to this threshold. At best, a relative delinking may take place Stern 2004. Notes 1 Value added is the incremental component of produced wealth that is attributable to the geographical area. They have contributed greatly to several of the papers that form the chapters of this book. When separately collected waste and population density are included as additional variables, the estimated elasticity increases to 0.
The core income environment relationship is investigated. Recall that the former variables are not in log forms, given that they present zero values. Then, though urbanization is associated with greater amounts of waste 8 Massimiliano Mazzanti and Anna Montini generated, it is managed in a more environmentally friendly way, either via incineration or via recycling. For some recent thorough analyses of long run trends for energy see Ayres et al. The former correlates with the size of household living space and, a new element, with the number of people in the family. This evidence emerges mainly from province-level data.
Additional socio-economic variables relevant for waste, such as share of separately collected waste and population density, are also tested. Although, in analyses of waste trends, consumption is often indicated and used as the driver Andersen et al. Then we present the empirical model and describe the panel data source. Evaluating policy processes during their initial phases can be useful for reshaping tools and processes. It is instrumented with volume of other separately collected waste and dummy variable for policy indica tors. We note that per capita waste values are right skewed, and the log transformation generates a more symmetrical distribution. Third or fourth level polynomials could also lead to N rather than U shaped curves.